Euclid's Elements, Book 3 Propositions 7 & 8
We made this sketch in class to try to make sense of these propositions. Proposition 7. If on the diameter of a circle a point is taken which is not the center of the circle, and from the point straight lines fall upon the circle, then that is greatest on which passes through the center, the remainder of the same diameter is least, and of the rest the nearer to the straight line through the center is always greater than the more remote; and only two equal straight lines fall from the point on the circle, one on each side of the least straight line. Proposition 8. If a point is taken outside a circle and from the point straight lines are drawn through to the circle, one of which is through the center and the others are drawn at random, then, of the straight lines which fall on the concave circumference, that through the center is greatest, while of the rest the nearer to that through the center is always greater than the more remote, but, of the straight lines falling on the convex circumference, that between the point and the diameter is least, while of the rest the nearer to the least is always less than the more remote; and only two equal straight lines fall on the circle from the point, one on each side of the least.
Text from David Joyce's translation & illustration of Euclid at http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/java/elements/bookIII/bookIII.html