# Subtraction of Directed Numbers - Counters Model

Subtracting a directed number by taking away (represented by "

**×**") the "+1" or "−1" counters.__Reference__Kaner, P.A. (1964) 'The addition and subtraction of negative numbers',

*The Mathematical Gazette*,

**48**(364), 183-185. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3613541

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