The Game of Life is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970.
The "game" is a zero-player game, meaning that its evolution is determined by its initial state, requiring no further input.
One creates an initial configuration and observes how it evolves.
The challenge is to create patterns with particular properties. You can look for stable patterns (still lifes), oscillating patterns or spaceships that move across the board.
Explore in this book what it is all about.